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Apples and Oranges: Differences between Various Subsidy Studies


October 1994; revised July 1995




Costs, Markets (Rural, Urban), Revenues, Services, Universal Service


Full Paper          Executive Summary



Part of a series on universal service, Apples and Oranges, helped federal and state regulators sort through a variety of studies, each producing a different amount for subsidies inherent in traditional telephone industry prices.  The studies ranged from $1 billion to $20 billion.  Each study asks and answers a different question; and therefore, the results are not directly comparable.  For each study, this paper shows the question, amount, the approach, the data set, and type of subsidy.





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