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Closing the Gap: Universal Service for Low-Income


August 2000




Low-Income, Markets (Residential), Services, Survey, Universal Service


Full Paper          Executive Summary          NARUC Resolution



Part of a series on universal service, Closing the Gap, provides data and practical solutions for policy discussions on connections for every U.S. citizen to the nations' networks.  This paper focuses on monthly support for telecommunications services for low-income households (Lifeline service).  At a minimum, these households are 12% of total U.S. households.

The results in this paper are from a survey of all the states with a 100% response.  Closing the Gap, indicates that states that go beyond the national guidelines increase their percent of eligible low-income subscribers with telephone service.  Results show two factors that increase subscription of eligible households.  A list of workable solutions based on current state practices includes most the effective, least-cost solutions.





Copyright 2006, Converging Industries Research Foundation and Carol Weinhaus, Cambridge, MA.  All Rights Reserved.


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